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Sobotta - Atlas of Human Anatomy, 15th Edition
iOS iPad Medical
The top-selling German anatomy app now available in English (anatomical nomenclature in Latin)!
The app includes all 12 chapters from the three volumes “General Anatomy and the Musculoskeletal System”, “Visceral Organs”, and “Head, Neck and Neuroanatomy” and stands out due to its excellent image quality.
You can learn anywhere and at anytime, add notes and bookmarks, and search for medical terms from every chapter throughout the whole Sobotta.
1 General Anatomy
Anatomy is the basis of medicine. Systematic anatomy divides the body into sections. Topographic anatomy (the study of the coexisting structures) and functional anatomy(the relations between form and function) constitute the clinical anatomy. Its findings play an important role for diagnostics and therapy.
2 Trunk (Torso)
The torso is supported by the vertebral column. Together with the ribs it gives the torso stability, protection and flexibility. A distinction is made between internal muscles of the body wall(which only act on the body wall) and muscles of the extremities (which originate from the body wall and act on the pectoral girdle and the limbs).
3 Upper Extremity
The upper extremity is composed of the pectoral girdle and the arm. Both merge into each other in the shoulder region. The upper limb has the biggest range of motion amongst all parts of the body, which results from the summarized ranges of motion from its individual components.
4 Lower Extremity
Pelvis and legs form the lower extremities as the organ of walking and supporting. The sturdy pelvic girdle bears the weight of the body and enables bipedal locomotion along with the legs.
5 Thoracic Viscera
The thorax contains the heart and the lungs. The heart as a hollow muscle pumps the blood into the pulmonary circulation and the (large) systemic circulation. The thoracic diaphragm extends from the backside of the sternum to the anterior surface of the thoracic vertebrae.
6 Abdominal Viscera
The liver, pancreas, gallbladder, stomach, duodenum and spleen are located in the upper abdomen, and the intestines lie in the lower abdomen. In order to ensure sliding movements of the visceral organs against each other(e.g. due to gastric filling) they are covered by peritoneum which is also lining the whole abdominal cavity.
7 Pelvis and Retroperitoneal Space
The retroperitoneal space and pelvis form a continuum: on the back of the gastro-intestinal tract lie the kidneys, the inferior caval vein(V. cava inferior) and the aorta. The greater pelvis is almost completely filled out by the intestines, whereas the lesser pelvis harbours the reproductive organs and the urinary tract.
The calvaria of the head are safely harbouring the brain. The craniofacial bones give humans their individual appearance, and their eyes, nose and ears enable the orientation and communication with their environment. The masticatory apparatus makes ingestion possible.
The eye is composed of the eyeball (bulbus) and auxiliary apparatus (eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland, ocular muscles). With exception of the eyelids, the eye as a vulnerable sensory organ is safely embedded into the eye socket(orbit).
The ear is divided into the outer, middle and inner ear. The sensory cells responsible for hearing and balance are located in the labyrinth of the inner ear.
The neck connects the head seamlessly with the rest of the body. Here, the large blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels, but also the esophagus and trachea pass through a relatively tight space.
12 Brain and Spinal Cord
Brain and spinal cord compose the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system starts where the cranial and spinal nerves leave the central nervous system.